Recent Publications and Resources

Nathan Associates

Advance Rulings Resource Guide

The Advance Rulings Resource Guide supports customs administrations in devising and implementing advance ruling strategies. Well-implemented advance ruling systems give traders and their agents certainty about how their goods will be treated at the time of import. They also promote consistent application of customs rulings and law, foster trust between customs and traders, and provide a transparent framework that encourages compliance ...
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Post-clearance Audit Programs

Post-clearance audit (PCA) is an approach to customs control that strengthens custom’s ability to validate risk assumptions and handle technical issues. An effective PCA system can pave the way for trusted trader or AEO programs, as well as more intensive compliance measurement programs. Published in 2011, this handbook provides a step-by-step guide to establishing a PCA system, including the legal, institutional, and organizational requirements for well-functioning systems ...
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Telecom Competition Guidelines for Vanuatu

Produced for the Telecommunication and Radiocommunication Regulator (TRR) of Vanuatu by Nathan economist Dr. Bruno Viani and legal adviser Laura Sherman, these guidelines Define the telecommunications market, assessing demand and supply side substitution (the SSNIP test) and providing a geographic market definition Describe determination of dominance Describe behaviors that may be anticompetitive Define abuse of dominance, and Describe the process for lodging and assessing complaints. The Government of Vanuatu approved and published the guidelines in August 2011 ...
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Constraints on Private Investment in the Poorest Developing Countries

Development finance institutions, such as CDC, were established to provide financing for private investment in developing countries. High levels of private investment are associated with faster rates of economic growth and growth is critical in reducing poverty. In this literature review, experts from Nathan Associates London Ltd delve into a number of issues: What constrains private investment in the poorest developing countries? How important a constraint is access to financing? What blocks access to financing? What types of businesses are most affected by a lack of financing and at what stages of their life cycle? What are the consequences of ...
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How DFIs Measure Development Returns on Investment in Private Enterprise

In this literature review, experts from Nathan Associates London Ltd discuss how some development finance institutions (DFIs) and multilateral development banks (MDBs) define and measure the impact of their investments by answering the following questions: How do agencies define and measure development impact? Are tax payments and jobs reliable gauges of impact? Is investment in some sectors more likely to have an impact? Do certain types of investment have more impact than others? Do DFI and MDB operations encourage technology transfer, faster technology adoption, or other productivity gains? Does financing start-ups and micro-enterprises have more or less impact than investing ...
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Investing in Mozambique: The Role of Fiscal Incentives

Many surveys and studies in Mozambique have identified barriers to private investment, the negative side of the business environment. Yet hardly any information is available on what actually motivates investors to commit resources to opportunities in Mozambique, the positive side of the business environment., This study examines this neglected side of the equation by reporting on survey results from a stratified random sample of companies that obtained investment approvals in 2005, 2006, and 2007 to qualify for fiscal benefits (benefícios fiscais) and guarantees on the remittance of funds abroad. The survey explores a variety of motives for investment, with a ...
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Programming for Growth

Development assistance is intended to foster conditions in which people prosper and governments provide essential services to all citizens without reliance on foreign aid. The fundamental condition is economic growth. This series of 10 briefing notes, produced by Nathan Associates Inc. for USAID’s EGAT Bureau, examines the value and effectiveness of economic growth programs. Each note (see links at the left) draws on a review of the literature and on program documents, taking into account controversies surrounding foreign aid and weakness in empirical evidence. The main conclusions of the series are as follows: Economic growth programs are vital. Sustained growth ...
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Authorized Economic Operator Programs

What is an authorized economic operator? Anyone moving goods across borders who meets internationally recognized standards for supply chain security: manufacturers, importers, exporters, brokers, carriers, consolidators, intermediaries, ports, airports, terminal operators, integrated operators, warehouses, and distributors. Through AEO programs, customs administrations work with traders to secure the supply chain while simplifying customs processes and improving customs controls and revenue flow. Published in April 2010, the AEO handbook was produced by Nathan Associates under the TCBoost project and in collaboration with the World Customs Organization. It describes how to design and execute an AEO program in 11 steps, presents examples of ...