The estimated 2.3 million survivors of forced labor in Nazi Germany are owed billions of dollars as a group, according to the analysis of Nathan economists John Beyer and Stephen Schneider. The results of their analysis are published in Forced Labor Under the Third Reich.

The study estimates the economic value of the unpaid labor and calculates the value of the forced laborers’ economic loss today. The study’s findings and conclusions were important in negotiations between German government and industry and victims of the Holocaust and their representatives.

In March 2000, negotiators in Berlin agreed on an allocation of a $5 billion compensation fund for forced laborers.

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